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The Principle of Honor: A Poor Substitute for the Real Thing

BY Craig Deininger August 1, 2021

A statue of King Arthur at Tintagel, Cornwall. Public Domain.

The chocolate cake is on the table. I mean the thick, moist, rich, exquisite, multi-layered chocolate cake. It has been divided so that each guest may have two pieces. As it turns out, one piece still remains because Jim arrived late and because Tom had already taken a third piece, mumbling something about “finders keepers.” By all rights, the last piece should go to Jim. But being principled, and fancying himself an honorable fellow, Jim says he’s not particularly hungry. After some back-and-forth, Sarah, feigning mild reluctance, takes the last piece. Throughout the evening, the topic of the legendary chocolate cake keeps cycling into the conversation, but Jim is unusually quiet and removed.

Honor is a fine attribute, but it is not had by reaching for its effects nor for what defines it. Such principles are surely effective, but the direction of their influence is from the outside in. At their best, principles train us to be thoughtful and attentive toward matters of high value. At their worst, they are dogma. Or another way to word it: you may put on the cape and the shirt with the capital letter S, but you still won’t fly. And to Jim I would say, “For god’s sake, just eat the damn cake and join the party.”

Honor—which is the theme for this month’s MythBlasts—accrues slowly, if not imperceptibly, in one’s character as an auxiliary effect precipitated by the likes of one’s nature, choices, actions, and destiny. In broader strokes, the relationship between genuine honor and honor-by-principles is reflected in the relationship between reading mythology and extracting its themes. For the myths do not provide us with convenient, bulleted lists of the themes they harbor (or the principles that can be deduced from said themes). And this is good because as such they become generic, sundered from their distinguishing contexts. Rather, to deeply understand a thing like honor, and to do so via mythology, its meaning must be absorbed by engaging the stories “as are,” in their fullest detail and in the span of their complete telling. Only then, through deep contextual association, do our extracted themes and principles maintain their highest value.

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Romance of the Grail.

That said, let’s turn to Romance of the Grail: The Magic and Mystery of Arthurian Myth, where Joseph Campbell hones in on the distinction between principled honor and honor that is genuine. In his forward, Evans Lansing Smith shares that of all original Arthurian-myth literature, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival is Campbell’s favorite. Being mine as well, I’d like to take a closer look. 

Parzival is a knight of many quests, one of which is to find the Grail Castle, a place visible only to those who qualify. What determines qualification is a composite of possibilities: sincerity, skill, training, grace, destiny, luck, who knows? Many have ridden through the surrounding terrain, and even inhabited it for years, yet never get a glimpse. 

The Grail King, also known as the Fisher King, is the keeper of the Grail, which in von Eschenbach’s narrative is a stone (as opposed to a dish or cup in other versions of the myth). The whole kingdom of the Grail has fallen into ruin because the king (who reflects that which he governs) bears a seemingly incurable wound to the groin. And here we can associate aspects of procreation with the Grail, which generates (apparently) anything out of nothing. For his wound (and, correspondingly, the whole kingdom) to be healed, the king need only be asked the one question: “What ails you?” 

That’s it. No exotic magical potions. No elaborate rituals enacted in twilight under auspicious planetary conjunctions—simply a question. It’s an odd solution, this question. But it is precisely its oddness that invites inquiry. What it means is up for grabs, and there are many opinions. Campbell writes that “[Parzival] has accomplished the worldly adventure . . . and now has come to the spiritual adventure, the one of asking the question, one that involves the Bodhisattva realization of compassion for all suffering beings” (52). 

Parsifal illustration, 1924 by Pino Casarini. Public Domain.

I like this interpretation because it extends beyond a simple word-formula and into the emotional terrain of compassion, which implies a certain selflessness (which is, indeed, honorable)—something beyond the ego is at work, something nearer to the heart. However, when Parzival, after years of travail, does finally encounter the suffering Grail King and is compelled to ask what ails him, he does not because he has been instructed that a knight does not ask too many questions. And the quest fails. To this Campbell responds, “His nature prompted him many times to ask the question, but he thought of his knightly honor. He thought of his reputation instead of his true nature. The social ideal interfered with his nature, and the result is desolation” (52-53). And so, ironically, Parzival’s commitment to the principle of honor extinguishes any engagement or enactment of an honor that is genuine. 

Principles, applied dogmatically, do not acknowledge one’s story—as in “my story.” As mentioned previously, they surely have their value, but not when one applies their generic quality to all specific contexts. We could say that such principles provide a kind of essence, but that essence is removed from the environment in which it thrived—removed from the context that distinguished the phenomenology of its suchness, its character. To a mythologist, this environment is nothing less than its story. 

Fortunately, Parzival’s story isn’t over yet because he later embraces what Campbell refers to above as his “true nature.” For he manages to return to the Grail Castle a second time, a feat that was hitherto thought impossible—a feat described in the narrative as a “miracle.” But this time, seasoned by life-experience and wholly attentive to his context, he most certainly does ask the question and, yes, the kingdom is healed.

To this “miraculous” turn of events, Campbell emphasizes that “through your own integrity, you evoke your destiny, which is a destiny that never existed before” (79). Of all things, be they Grail-specific or not, that one insight is profoundly inspiring: that our destinies (i.e., our stories) are surely not written in stone, and that they can be inflected and redirected at any point if we simply embrace the fact that they are only and ever our own.


Discuss this MythBlast with the author, Craig Deininger, in our forums: join us in Conversations of a Higher Order. 

Craig Deininger Yours, Craig Deininger
Craig Deininger is a mythologist, poet, Jungian scholar, and construction worker. In addition to Jungian Psychology, he has taught writing, creative writing, and various literature courses at several colleges and universities. He has been a part of the Joseph Campbell Mythological RoundTable ® group in Ojai, California since 2011, where he presents primarily on Imagination, Mythology, and Alchemy.

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Arthurian Romances 12th & 13th Centuries (Audio: Lecture III.2.4)

Our gift to you this month is audio lecture. Access this download for free until the end of the month.

In this talk, recorded in 1976 at the Theatre for the Open Eye, Joseph Campbell gives a fascinating, lively overview of the history of the development of the Arthurian Romances of the High Middle Ages. From the Arthur legend’s Roman roots, through Gawain and the Green Knight and the stories of the search for the Holy Grail, to Mallory’s great compendium Le Morte d’Arthur, Campbell leads us through the birth and evolution of one of Europe’s greatest literary and mythic traditions.

News & Updates

With the rising of the Centáwen moon over the Pacific Northwest this August, the Coho salmon will “return to earth.” Of the Coast Salish People’s thirteen moons, four are associated with the return of distinct species of salmon to the shores and streams of tribal territories. Each species is greeted with great respect as it is believed that all living things were once human.

Lammas [August 1] is one of eight official sabbats in the Wiccan wheel of the year. Traditions include a first fruits offering to Lugh, the ranking deity of the harvest, as well as “trial marriages” which may be renewed after a year and a day or allowed to expire.

Catholicism’s liturgical calendar marks August 6 as the Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord when three astonished disciples of Jesus witnessed his transition into a dazzling figure of light.

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Our life evokes our character. You find out more about yourself as you go on. That’s why it’s good to put yourself in situations that will evoke your higher nature rather than your lower.

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Throughout his life, Joseph Campbell was deeply engaged in the study of the Grail Quests and Arthurian legends of the European Middle Ages. In this new volume of the Collected Works of Joseph Campbell, editor Evans Lansing Smith collects Campbell’s writings and lectures on Arthurian legends, including his never-before-published master’s thesis on Arthurian myth, “A Study of the Dolorous Stroke.” Campbell’s writing captures the incredible stories of such figures as Merlin, Gawain, and Guinevere as well as the larger patterns and meanings revealed in these myths. Merlin’s death and Arthur receiving Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake, for example, are not just vibrant stories but also central to the mythologist’s thinking.

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